TOPICS

Metabolic Flexibility

Humans evolved in the setting of periodic food scarcity during which we developed the ability to rapidly switch between different fuel sources.  We are designed by evolution to burn fat in our fasting state and to burn primarily carbohydrates in our fed state in order to generate energy in the form of ATP.  All of…

Autophagy

Autophagy (literally “self-eating”) is the body’s way of cleansing cells by recycling old or damaged components and is a process that appears to have a strong relationship to preventing disease and aging.  More technically, it is a highly regulated lysosome-dependent catabolic program used by the body to clear dysfunctional proteins, organelles and other structures that…

Epigenetic clocks and Reprogramming  

How do we measure aging?  Certainly, there is the passage of time and how many birthdays someone has had, but we know that aging proceeds more quickly for some people than it does for others.  The speed of aging depends on your genes but also various factors such as, for instance, whether you smoke, your…

Weight Set Point Theory

The real challenge with weight loss is keeping the weight off.  When you lose a significant amount of weight (greater than 10% is the number that’s typically used, though certainly there is individual variability), the body does what it can to return to its original weight, leading to the much-heralded phenomenon of yo-yo dieting.  The…

Drugs For Obesity

Sometimes no matter how hard we exercise or how conscientiously we diet, the weight does not come off.   A short fast can jump start the process of fat oxidation, but we are also fortunate to have FDA-approved drugs to help us along if we cannot get started. Or if we plateau.   We offer medications…

One way of looking at anti-aging interventions

Anti-aging interventions: What are the main physiological targets for current and future anti-aging therapies? 1. MTOR inhibition. MTOR (or mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a highly conserved kinase (or enzyme) present in all cells in almost all forms of life. It’s purpose is to sense whether or not the organism is in a fed state,…